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                            1. 首页 » 创新知识 » 技术前沿

                              基于虚拟现实的三维建模技术的研究

                                作者:吴桐桐 周国辉  发布时间:2018-04-09
                              关键词:三维建模 CAD

                              0 引言

                                  (VirtualReality,VR)TONGGUOSHIYONGJISUANJI,YUNYONGYIDINGDEJISHUSHOUDUANJIANZAOYIGEFANGZHENDESANWEIXUNIHUANJING。VRJISHUTONGCHANGJUYOURUXIADETEZHENG:

                                  1)CHENJINGAN。SHIZHIDUIXIANGZUOWEIZHUJIAOZHISHENYUXUHUANSHIJIEZHONGDEBIZHENGANSHOU。

                                  2)JIAOHUXING。SHIZHICANYUZHEDUIMONISHIJIEZHONGWUTIDEKEGANYUXINGYIJICONGXUNIHUANJINGZHONGDEDAOXIAOGUOFANKUIDEZIRANCHENGDU。

                                  3)ZIZHUXING。QIANGDIAOVRJISHUYINGGAIYONGYOUGUANGKUODEKEHUANXIANGKONGJIAN,NENGGOUTUOZHANRENLEIRENZHIDELINGYU,BUJINKEYIBIZHENZHONGXIANKEGUANSHIJIE,HAIKEYIGOUJIANXUHUANDE、SHENZHISHIQIHUANDESHIJIEZHUANGTAI。

                                  DANGJINSHIDAIRIXINYUEYI,SUIZHEJISUANJILINGYUXIANGGUANJISHUDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,VRXITONGGOUJIANJIJISHUJINRUWANGLUOYINGYONGYIRANCHENGWEISHIXIADEYIGESHIJIANXINGREDIANYANJIUKETI。JUTILAISHUO,SANWEIJIANMOJISHUSHIVRXITONGDEJICHU,RUGUOMEIYOUZHUANYEVRJIANMOGONGJUTIGONGZHICHENG,VRXITONGJIANGHENNANCHENGGONGJIANLI。ERZAIWANCHENGFUZADEXUNIXIANSHICHANGJINGDEMONIJIANMOSHI,YANJIUZHONGGENGDUODISHIYONGLESANWEIMOXINGZHIZUORUANJIAN。QIZHONG,3DMAXJIANMORUANJIANSHIZUIQUGUANGFANYUPUJIYINGYONGDE。TONGGUOLIYONG3DMAXJIANZAOXUNIHUANJINGHUOWUTI,ANZHUANGYUQIXIANGDUIYINGDECHAJIANYONGYUJIEGUOSHUCHU,JIUNENGGOUXIANGDUIZHUNQUEKEKAODICHUANGJIANHUANJINGMOXINGWENDANGLE。

                              1 虚拟现实建模技术

                                  ZAISHEJIVRXITONGZHIQIAN,SHOUXIANXUYAOCHUANGJIANYIGEXUNIHUANJING(Environment)。ZAIZHONGDUOYINSUZHONG,SHIJUEJIANGGUANXIDAOZUIWEIZHIGUANHEXINGXIANGDEYONGHUTIYAN,SUOYIHUANJINGGOUJIANZHONG,SHISHIDONGTAI、BIZHENHELIDECHENGXIANJICHENGWEIZHIGUANZHONGYAODEGONGNENGXUQIU。

                                  YIDANMOXINGJIANLIQILAI,JIKECHENGZUOYIGEXITONGDEJIANLI。XITONGNENGGOUYONGYOUYIGEWUTIHUOSHIDUOGEQUNTI,ZHEIYANGDEBIAOXIANKEYIGOUCHENGXITONGDEMOXING。YEJIUSHISHUO,XITONGMOXINGYIYIGEHUODUOGEFANGSHICUNZAI。JIANMOZUICHUYAOWANCHENGDEBUZHOU,SHIJIXITONGNIDINGYIGEBIAOZHUN,XUNISHIJIELICUNZAIZHONGDUODEDUIXIANGWUTI,XIANGDUICENGCIJIAOWEIFANZA,YINERBIXUBAOKUOQIZHONGQUANBUSHEJIDEDUIXIANG。XIAMIANZEDUIZHEIYIJISHUNEIRONGZHANKAILUNSHUYANJIU。

                                  1.1 几何建模

                                  SANWEISHIJUEJIANMOKEXIFENWEIJIHEJIANMO(GeometricModeling)、WULIJIANMO(PhysicalModeling)、DUIXIANGXINGWEIJIANMO(ObjectBehaviorModeling)DENG。ERZAIXUNISHIJIEGOUJIANZHONGGAOXIAOGUANJIANDESHEJISHOUDUANJIUSHIJIHEJIANMO。

                                  WUTIDUIXIANGDEJIHEXINXIKEYIYONGJIHEJIANMO(GeometricModeling)LAIMIAOSHU,XUHUANSHIJIEZHONGDEGEGEDUIXIANGDOUKEYOUXINGZHUANGHEWAIXING2GEYAOSULAIGOUCHENG,ERZHEI2GEYAOSUYOUJIANGFENBIEYOUDUIXIANGDEQITAYINSULAIZONGHEQUEDING。

                                  1.1.1 Polygon(多边形)建模

                                  Polygon(DUOBIANXING)JIANMOSHIJICHUJIANMOJISHU,JIUSHIYONGBIJIAOSHAOLIANGDEWANGGEDUOBIANXINGJINXINGBIANJIJIANMO。YUNYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFA,XUYAOXIANKEHUAYIGEJIBENDEGUIZEJIHETI,ZAIGENJUXUQIUJINYIBUXIUGAIDUIXIANGXIJIEBUFEN,ZUIHOUTONGGUOGEZHONGSHOUDUANJISHULAIYINGJIANXUNIXIANSHIDECHANGJINGHEDUIXIANG。DUOBIANXINGJIANMODEQUEDIANSHIBUNENGGOUSHENGCHENGQUMIAN,DANQICAOZUOJIANDANFANGBIAN,ERQIESHIXIAOXINGPOJIA。polygonsJIANMODUOYONGYUYOUXI、DONGHUADENGLINGYUZHONG。

                              乐享棋牌官网下载     DUOBIANXINGBAOKUO4GEJIBENYUANSU:DINGDIAN、BIAN、MIAN、WENLIZUOBIAO。

                                  XIAMIAN,BENWENJIANGYUNYONGDUOBIANXINGJIANMOJISHUJIANZAOYIGEDUNPAI,SHIXIANGUOCHENGYONGDAOLEDUOBIANXINGJIANMOJISHUZHONG,DUIWUTIMIANDEBIANHUAN、DIANDELASHEN、YIJIDUOGEJIHETIHUXIANGPINJIEDEGUOCHENG,MOXINGZHANSHIRUTU1~TU3SUOSHI。

                              乐享棋牌官网下载 TU1 DUOBIANXINGJIANMO1

                              TU2 DUOBIANXINGJIANMO2

                              图3 多边形建模3
                               

                              1.1.2  NURBS(非均匀有理B样条曲线)建模

                                  BUTONGYUDUOBIANXINGJIANMO,NURBSJIANMODUOSHIZHUANMENYONGLAIJIANZAOQUMIANDUIXIANG。YANJIUZHONGKEYONGQUXIANHEQUMIANLAIKEHUANURBSJIANMODUIXIANG,YINCIZAINURBSLIMIANJIANZAOYIGERUILIDEBIANZESHIBUKENENGDEWANCHENGRENWU。NURBSQUXIANDETEZHENGSHIKEYIZAIRENYIDIANSHANGFENGEHEHEBING,ERPolygonDEQUXIANQUEWUFAZUODAOZHEIYANG。NURBSJIANMOTONGCHANGSHIYONGYUGONGYEMOXING、CHANPINSHEJI。

                                  下面,本文即运用NURBS建模设计一个杯子,在设计实现中将首先运用CV曲线工具设计出杯子的曲线,如图4所示;再通过旋转工具绘制杯子的初步模型,如图5所示;接下来则
                              通过编辑曲线上的点来进一步修改杯子的轮廓,以达到理想的模型效果,如图6所示;最后得到图7,杯子模型最终完成。

                                  1.1.3 Subdivision(细分表面技术)建模

                              乐享棋牌官网下载     Subdivision(XIFENBIAOMIANJISHU)SHIJINNIANLAIXINXINGDEYILEIJIANMOJISHU。JISHUZHONGHUIJILENURBS(FEIJUNYUNYOULIBYANGTIAOQUXIAN)JIANMOHEPolygonJIANMODETEDIANHEYOUSHI,SHIHEDAJIANYIXIECENGCIGANFENGFUFUZADEMOXING。ERQIE,QIJIANMOGONGJUJIANDAN,CAOZUOFANGBIAN,CHUANGZUOJINGZHENZUOPINSHISHIGEBUCUODEXUANZE。

                              TU4 QUXIANJIANMO1

                              乐享棋牌官网下载 TU5 QUXIANJIANMO2

                              乐享棋牌官网下载 TU6 QUXIANJIANMO3

                              TU7 QUXIANJIANMO4

                                  SubdivisionJIANYOUGUANGHUADEBIAOMIAN,YINERBINGBUCUNZAIDUIXIANGBIAOMIANDELIANXUXINGWENTI。KEHUADAOXIJIEDESHIHOU,BIRUGAOJINGDUDEDIAOJIE,JIUSHILIYONGlevelCANSHUJINXINGQUYUXINGDEDIAOJIE。TEBIEDI,Subdivision(XIFENBIAOMIANJISHU)NENGGOUYONGYUYINGDUIYAOQIUGENGGAODEJIANMO。

                                  ZONGSHANG,JIANGKEGENJUYONGHUDESHIJIXUQIULAIXUANZEZUIWEIQIADANGDEJIANMOFANGFA,RUCICAINENGKUAISUYOUXIAODIDACHENGXIAOGUOMUBIAO。

                                  1.2 虚拟现实中的物理建模

                                  JIJIHEJIANMOFAZHANLIUXINGZHIHOU,LINGWAIYIZHONGJIANMOYINGYUNERSHENG,JIUSHIWULIJIANMO。WULIJIANMOZHONGDIANQUJUEYUKEXUEHELIDEDONGTAIYUESHUHEYUNDONGFANGCHENGDEQUELIJIQIUJIE。GENGGAIXIANZHITIAOJIAN,HUDONGHUANJINGJIKEZIDONGJIEDAGENGXINDEYUNDONGFANGCHENGERQIEBUCUNZAIXIANZHUYANCHIXIANXIANG。YANJIUZHONG,DUOSHITONGGUOMONIDUIXIANGDEWEIYI、PENGZHUANGJIANCE、XUANZHUAN、BIAOMIANXINGBIANDENGFANGMIANLAISHIXIANMOXINGDAJIAN。

                                  XIAMIANJIANGZHENDUI2ZHONGJIAOWEIJINGDIANDEWULIJIANMOJISHU:FENXINGJISHUHELIZIXITONG,FENBIEJICHUJISHUZONGSHU。

                                  1.2.1 分形技术

                              乐享棋牌官网下载     FENXINGJISHUYONGLAIBIAOSHIJUYOUZIXIANGSITEZHENGDESHUJUJI。YIXIEFUZADEBUGUIZEXINGZHUANGDUIXIANGDEJIANMOKEYIYUNYONGZIXIANGSIZHEIZHONGJIEGOU。GAIJISHUZUIZAOYINGYONGYUSHANCHUANJISHUILIUDEDILITEXINGJIANMO。FENXINGJISHUSUIRANYOUQICAOZUOJIANDANDEYOUDIAN,DANSHIJISUANLIANGGUODA,JISHUSHISHIXINGYESUIJIJIANGDI,SUOYIZHISHISHIYONGYUJINGTAIYUANJINGDEJIANMOZHONG。

                                  1.2.2 粒子系统

                                  LIZIXITONGSHUYUJINGDIANDEWULIJIANMOXITONG。JIANDANDECAOZUOJIKEWANCHENGFUZAYUNDONGDEJIANMO,YOUCIGOUCHENGLELIZIXITONG。ZAIXUNIXIANSHIZHONG,LIZIXITONGKEYILAIBIAOSHIYANHUO、LIUSHUI、FENGXUE、DAYU、PUBUDENGZIRANXIANXIANG。ZAIXUNIXIANSHIZHONG,LIZIXITONGZHUYAOYONGYUDONGTAIDE、YUNDONGDEWUTIJIANMO。

                                  1.3 虚拟现实中的行为建模

                                  JIHEJIANMOYUWULIJIANMOXIANGJIEHE,JINSHIKEYIJUBUCHENGXIANCHUYIGESHIJUESHANGGANSHOUZHENSHIDEHUAMIANTEDIAN,ERRUOYAOJIANZAOYIGEBIZHENDEXUNIHUANJINGSHIJIE,ZEHAIXUYAOXINGWEIJIANMODECANYUHEJIARU。

                                  DUIXIANGDEYUNDONGYUXINGWEIMIAOSHUJUNKEYITONGGUOXINGWEIJIANMODEFANGSHILAIZHIXINGSHEJICAOZUO。XINGWEIJIANMONENGGOUZHUNQUETIEQIEDIMIAOSHUXUNIXIANSHIDETEDIAN,RUGUOMEIYOUXINGWEIMOXINGDESHIXIAOZHICHENG,NEIMERENHEVRDEGOUJIANJUNBUHUICUNZAIRENHEYIYI。

                                  ZAIGOUZAOMOXINGSHI,BUDANYAOSHEJISHIXIANMOXINGWAIGUANDENGBIAOXIANTEXING,TONGSHIGENGYAOGUANLIANSHIXIANMOXINGWULITEXING,JINERFUHEZHENSHICUNZAIDEXINGWEIXIGUANHEYINGJIDENENGLI。

                                  如果说几何建模(GeometricModeling)技术主要是计算机图形学领域的研究发展所得,那么,物理建模(PhysicalModeling)和行为建模(ObjectBehaviorModeling)就是多学科领域交叉的研究产物。必须结合多个领域的研究技术成果,才能够建立优质、
                              乐享棋牌官网下载 且高端完善的行为模型。

                              2 3DMAX模型在虚拟现实中的应用

                                  2.1 虚拟现实建模语言———VRML

                                  VRML(VirtualRealityModelingLanguage)SHIYIZHONGNENGGOUZAIWANGLUOSHANGFAHUIYINGXIANGYUZUOYONGDEKEYIGOUJIANLITIXUHUANKONGJIANDEFANGZHENCHENGXUYUYAN。YUNYONGWANGLUODEYONGHUNENGGOULIULANDAOYOUVRMLCHUANGJIANDE3DXUHUANXIANSHI,GAIBIANSHIXIAWANGLUOYUYONGHUYINGYONGHUDONGDEJUXIANXING,SHIDEYONGHUYUJISUANJIDEXUQIUHUDONGGENGJIABIANJIE,CONGERQUANMIANZHANSHILEXUNICHANGJINGDECHENJINXING、JIAOHUXINGHEZIZHUXING。

                                  VRMLYUYANJUYOUMIAOSHUXINGZHI,KEYIGOUZAOSANWEILITIHUANJINGHUOWUTI。ZAIGOUZAODEXUNIHUANJINGZHONG,MEIGECHANGJINGJUNYOUXUDUODEJIEDIANLAISHEJI、BUSHUBINGGOUCHENG,YINERDUIZHEIXIEJIEDIANJINXINGGAISHU,BINGQIESHENGCHENGwrlWENJIAN。

                                  VRML与HTML相同,可以理解为是ASCII码的描述性的语言。具体来说,就是一种码文件,可用普通计算机中都包含的文本编辑器编写,还能使用VRML语言的专业编辑器来编写源程序。通过使用VRML,用户可以自行构造出符合特定需
                              求的模拟桌面场景。

                                  2.2 3DMAX模型在VRML中的应用

                              乐享棋牌官网下载     VRML(XUNIXIANSHIJIANMOYUYAN)YUNYONGJIEDIANDAJIANHUANJING,DANSHIYONGJIEDIANLAIMIAOSHUMOXINGQUENANNENGDADAOJUTIBIZHENDEXIANSHISHEJIXIAOGUO,ERQIEYEBURONGYIMONIBAOHANFUZAMIANDEXINGTI。RUOYUNYONG3DMAXZENENGGOUMIBUZHEIYIBUZU。XIANDUIQISHIXIANGUOCHENGJICHUJUTIFENXICHANSHU。

                                  1)YONGMAXMOXINGJIANLIVEMLWENJIAN。

                              乐享棋牌官网下载     2)RUOYAOGOUJIANVRMLDESANWEILITIXUHUANKONGJIAN,SHOUXIANXUYAOQIYONG3DMAX,RUCI,JIANGNENGGOUSHUCHUVRML97DEWENJIAN。DIANJI3DMAXJINRUXITONG,BINGQIESHIYONGGEZHONGJIANMOFANGFADAJIANVRXITONGDESHITIHUAZHIHOU,JIUYAODANJICreate/Helpers,XUANZEVRML97;CISHI,HUICHUXIANYIGEGONGJUMIANBAN,MIANBANSHANGLIESHI12GEVRMLFUZHUGONGJU,FENBIESHI:Anchor(MAO)、AudioClip(YINPINJIANCAIBAN)、Background(BEIJING)、Billboard(GUANGGAOPAI)、Fog(WU)、InlineObject(ZAIXIANBANGZHU)、LOD(XIJIEJIBIE)、NavInfo(LIULANXINXI)、ProxSensor(FANWEICHUANGANQI)、Sound(SHENGYIN)、TimeSensor(SHIJIANCHUANGANQI)、TouchSensor(CHUDONGCHUANGANQI);XIANGYINGDI,JIUKETIANJIAXIEDIAOFUZHUDEGONGJU,SUIHOUDANJI“File/Export”JIUHUICHUXIANYIGE“SelectfiletoExport”DUIHUAKUANG,DIANJI“BAOCUNLEIXING”DEXIALALIEBIAOKUANG,XUANQU“VRML97(*.WRL)”LEIXINGWENJIAN,QUEDINGWENJIANMINGHOUDANJI“BAOCUN”;QIHOU,CHUXIAN“VRML97EXPORTER”DUIHUAKUANG,XUANQUXITONGMORENZHI,DIANJI“OK”SHENGCHENGYIGEWENJIAN,WENJIANDEHOUZHUIJIUSHIWRL。

                                  3)JIANGMAXMOXINGDAORUDAOVRMLCHANGJINGZHONG。JIANDANSHUOLAI,JISHIXIANJIANG3DMAXMOXINGDAOCHU,BAOCUNWEI3DSGESHI,ZAIHEBINGVRML。NEIXIEYUNYONGVRMLKAIFASHEJIDEXUHUANHUANJINGZHONG,DABUFENSHITIDOUNENGGOUZAI3DMAXZHONGWANCHENGMOXINGCHUANGJIAN,ZUIHOUHUODEVRMLXINGSHIDEWENJIAN。BIRU,ZAIJIANZHUMANYOUHUANJINGLIXUNIYIBUDIANTI(loft)。DIANTIMOXINGKEYIYUNYONGQIANSHUTIJIDEPolygon(DUOBIANXINGJIANMO)LAIGOUJIANSHENGCHENG,BINGBAOCUNWEIVRMLGESHIWENJIAN。ERHOU,KEJIEHETouchSensor、TimeSensorHEPositionInterpolatorJIEDIANLAIDADAODIANTIMENLAKAIYUGUANBIDECHANGJINGSHIJUEXIAOGUO。

                              3 结束语

                                  SUIZHEDANGJINJISUANJIRUAN、YINGJIANJISHUDEXUNSUFAZHAN,VRJISHUDEYINGYONGRIQUGUANGFAN,BUJINZAIJIAOYU、JUNSHI、YILIAO、JIANZHU、HANGKONGDENGLINGYUCANYULECHENGGUOCHUANGZAO,ERQIEZAIYULE、DENGFANGMIANYEFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

                                  DANZAIZHEIFANGMIANDEYANJIUZHONG,RENGRANCUNZAIZHUDUOBUZU。YINCI,ZAIJISUANJIXINXINGJISHUKAITUOFAZHANDEJINCHENGZHONG,DINGHUIYOUGENGDUO、GENGXINDEKEXINGFANGANLAIJIEJUEDANGXIACUNZAIDEYANJIUNANTI,XUNIXIANSHIZHONGDESANWEIJIANMOJISHUYEBIJIANGHUODEGENGDADEFAZHANKONGJIANJIGENGWEIKEGUANDEYINGYONGQIANJING。

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